Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذُوالفِقار علی بُھٹّو ), (Sindhi: ذوالفقار علي ڀُٽو) Sindhi pronunciation: ) (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the fourth President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He is revered by his followers in Pakistan as Quaid-i-Awam (Urdu: قائد عوام People's Leader). He was also the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.
Educated at Berkeley and Oxford, Bhutto trained as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn. He entered politics as one of President Iskander Mirza's cabinet members, before being assigned several ministries during erstwhile General and subsequent President Ayub Khan's military rule. Appointed foreign minister in 1963, Bhutto was a proponent of Operation Gibraltar in Indian-controlled Kashmir, leading to war with India in 1965. After the Tashkent Agreement ended hostilities, Bhutto fell out with Ayub and was sacked from government. He founded the PPP in 1967, contesting general elections in 1970. While the Awami League won a majority of seats overall, the PPP won a majority of seats in West Pakistan; the two parties were unable to agree on a new constitution in particular on the issue of Six Point Movement which many in West Pakistan saw as a way to break up the country. Subsequent uprisings led to the secession of Bangladesh, and Pakistan losing the war against Bangladesh-allied India in 1971. Bhutto was handed over the presidency in December 1971 and emergency rule was imposed.
When Bhutto set about rebuilding Pakistan, he stated his intention was to "rebuild confidence and rebuild hope for the future". By July 1972, Bhutto had recovered 93,000 prisoners of war and 5,000 square miles of Indian-held territory after signing the Simla Agreement. In foreign affairs, he strengthened ties with the Soviet Union, China and Saudi Arabia, and recognised the sovereignty of Bangladesh. Domestically, Bhutto's reign saw parliament unanimously approve a new constitution in 1973, after which he endorsed Fazal Ilahi's bid for president, and assumed instead the newly empowered office of prime minister. He also played an integral role in initiating the atomic bomb programme. His economic programme was based on the nationalization of much of Pakistan's industries, and expansion of the Welfare State by introducing minimum wage and old age benefits. In addition Bhutto launched the process of industrial reconstruction by establishing Pakistan Steel Mills and Port Qasim. Bhutto dissolved the Balochistan Assembly following the discovery of arms from Iraq destined for rebels, this was met with unrest, Bhutto responded by introducing a series of political and economic reforms.
The PPP won the 1977 parliamentary elections; however, a conservative alliance alleged widespread rigging and civil disorder escalated across Pakistan. On 5 July 1977, chief of army staff General Zia-ul-Haq deposed Bhutto in a bloodless coup, ironically code named "Operation Fair Play" and had the former prime minister controversially tried and executed by the Supreme Court in 1979 for authorising the murder of a political opponent, Ahmad Raza Khan Kasuri. While Bhutto's legacy is contentious, his party, the PPP, remains one of the largest in Pakistan and his daughter Benazir Bhutto emerged as prime minister after winning the Pakistani General elections of 1988 following Zia's death.
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto belonged to a Muslim arain family. He was born in Sindh to Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto and Khursheed Begum (née Lakhi Bai) near Larkana. Zulfikar was their third child—their first one, Sikandar Ali, had died from pneumonia at age seven in 1914, and the second, Imdad Ali, died of cirrhosis at age 39 in 1953. His father was the dewan of the princely state of Junagadh, and enjoyed an influential relationship with the officials of the British Raj. As a young boy, Bhutto moved to Worli Seaface in Bombay to study at the Cathedral and John Connon School. He then also became an activist in the Pakistan Movement. In 1943, his marriage was arranged with Shireen Amir Begum. He later divorced her in 1945, however, in order to remarry. In 1947, Bhutto was admitted to the University of Southern California to study political science.