Whitney is located in western Hill County at Texas State Highway 22 passes through the southeast side of the city, leading east 12 miles (19 km) to Hillsboro, the county seat, and west 26 miles (42 km) to Meridian. Lake Whitney State Park is 3 miles (5 km) west of Whitney via Farm Road 1244.(31.950876, -97.320716).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles (4.9 km2), of which 0.02 square miles (0.06 km2), or 1.23%, are water.
At the 2000 census, there were 1,833 people, 684 households and 443 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,132.3 per square mile (436.9/km²). There were 770 housing units at an average density of 475.6 per square mile (183.5/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 88.11% White, 7.09% African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 2.73% from other races, and 1.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.27% of the population.
There were 684 households of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.2% were non-families. 32.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.11.