Venice

A collage of Venice: at the top left is the Piazza San Marco, followed by a view of the city, then the Grand Canal, and (smaller) the interior of La Fenice and, finally, the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore.
Flag of Venice
Venice (/ˈvɛnɪs/, VEN-iss; Italian: Venezia,  (About this sound listen); Venetian: Venesia, ) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated across a group of 118 small islands[1] that are separated by canals and linked by bridges, of which there are 400.[2][3] The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers (more exactly between the Brenta and the Sile). Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, and artwork.[2] The lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[2]

In 2014, 264,579 people resided in Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historic city of Venice (Centro storico). Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), with a total population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is only a statistical metropolitan area.[4]

The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BCE.[5][6] The city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. Venice has been known as the "La Dominante," "Serenissima," "Queen of the Adriatic," "City of Water," "City of Masks," "City of Bridges," "The Floating City," and "City of Canals."

The Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century. The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th century.[7] This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history.[8]

It is also known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.[9] Venice has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016.[10] The city is facing some major challenges, however, including financial difficulties, erosion, pollution, subsidence, an excessive number of tourists in peak periods and problems caused by oversized cruise ships sailing close to the banks of the historical city.[11][12][13]

The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most likely taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic, Lombard, and Frankish control. The name Venetia, however, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks Enetoi (Ἐνετοί). The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen ("love"), so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color 'sea-blue', is also possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire (to come), such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam ("Yet, I have come!"), the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or even with venia ("forgiveness") are fanciful. The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia ;[14] (Venetian: Venèxia ; Latin: Venetiae; Slovene: Benetke).

Kingdom of Odoacer 476–493
Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553
Simple Labarum.svg Eastern Roman Empire 553–584
Simple Labarum.svg Exarchate of Ravenna 584–697
Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Republic of Venice 697–1797
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Habsburg Monarchy 1797–1805
Flag of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy.svg Kingdom of Italy 1805–1815
Flag of Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.svg Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 1815–1848
Flag of the Republic of Venice 1848-49.gif Republic of San Marco 1848–1849
Flag of Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.svg Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 1849–1866
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg Kingdom of Italy 1866–1946

Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice,[15] tradition and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees from Roman cities near Venice such as Padua, Aquileia, Treviso, Altino and Concordia (modern Portogruaro) and from the undefended countryside, who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions.[16] This is further supported by the documentation on the so-called 'apostolic families', the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families.[17][18] Some late Roman sources also reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae ("lagoon dwellers"). The traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto (Rivoalto, "High Shore") — said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421 (the Feast of the Annunciation).[19][20]

This page was last edited on 13 July 2018, at 14:23 (UTC).
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice under CC BY-SA license.

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