Turkish coffee refers to a method of brewing very finely ground coffee. Any coffee bean may be used; arabica varieties are considered best, but robusta or a blend is also used. The beans must be ground to a very fine powder, which is left in the coffee when served.
Turkish coffee is made by bringing very finely ground coffee beans with water and usually sugar to the boil in a special pot called cezve. As soon as the mixture begin to froth, and before it boils over, about one-third of the coffee is distributed to individual cups; the remaining amount is returned to the fire and distributed to the cups as soon as it starts to boil. The coffee is traditionally served in a special type of small porcelain cup called a kahve finjanı.
Sugar is added to Turkish coffee while brewing, so the amount of sugar must be specified when preparing the coffee. It may be served unsweetened (Turkish: sade kahve), with little or moderate sugar (Turkish: orta şekerli), or sweet (Turkish: tatlı). Plain coffee is usually served with Turkish delight, or sometimes a piece of rock candy. It may also be spiced with cardamom.
First appearing in the Ottoman Empire, under the strictest interpretations of the Quran the strong coffee was considered a drug and its consumption was forbidden. Due to the immense popularity of the beverage, the sultan eventually lifted this prohibition.