Tula Arms Plant

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Tula Arms Plant (Russian: Тульский оружейный завод, translit. Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod) is a Russian weapons manufacturer founded by Tsar Peter I of Russia in 1712 in Tula, Tula Oblast as Tula Arsenal. Throughout its history, it has produced weapons for the Russian state. Its name was changed from Tula Arsenal to Tula Arms Plant during the Soviet era.

Historically, the plant produced a wide variety of arms and sports weapons for the Russian Army. Originally, the plant was created to defend the citizens of Tula from nomads' invasions, because they did not have enough weapons, which were produced in Moscow. So, by decree of Peter the Great, construction started on the plant. The factory was equipped with then-progressive equipment such as: water machines, "trochanteric" machines for drilling shafts, grapes, hammers, machines for "scrubbing" - exterior and interior finishes trunks. Firstly in the production of mechanisms had started to use the most advanced technologies, which vastly increased the quality of weapons in Russia. In the 18th century this plant was recognized as etalon of Russian Arms Production. In 1720, for the weaponry of Russian army, a plant was produced 22 thousand light infantry and dragoon rifles, pistols flintlock, and from the 1749 has been started mass production of cold weapons- knives, sabers, broadswords, swords.

The flourishing of Tula Arms Plant had in the second half of 18th century, when in that time, rapidly increased a demand on the artistically decorated weapons. A unique, remarkable for its elegance invention Tula’s plant - "Diamond Line" on the metal, and many other secrets of decoration on metal and wood are rooted precisely in this era. By the end of 18th century, becoming known names such fine gunsmiths as Ivan Pushkin, Ivan Lialin - creator of the double-barreled breech-loading flintlock, Ivan Pauline - the designer who created one of the first examples of a multiply-charged weapons shop.

Reconstructed in the 19th century Tula Arms Factory became one of the most prominent arms factories in Europe. In 1879 the plant started production of the famous Berdan rifle with an improved bolt. Workshop was organized by a model where created their own models of small arms and hunting weapons. Increased production of various products: single- and double-barrel muzzle-loading shotguns, breech-loading center-fire rifles. Designer Sergei Ivanovich Mosin took part in devising damascus steel technology used in production of barrels. He also designed a bolt-action rifle which was put to testing along with a rifle developed by Émile Nagant. In 1891, as a result of complex tests Mosin's entry was chosen over the Belgian design and it was adopted by the Imperial Russian Army as the three-line rifle of 1891.

In 1902 the factory was re-organized, fully mechanized mass production of hunting rifles (first hammerless shotguns model "B", and then Ivashentsev’s trigger gun system). In 1910 the factory started the production of Maxim machine gun. In 1920s the plant had developed and produced a range of different firearms, such as: hunting shotgun model "P" and carbine NK-8,2 (designed by Kochetov), small-caliber rifles TOZ-1 and TOZ-2, single-shot rifles TOZ-7 and TOZ-8, and sporting shotgun TOZ-10.

In 1927 planning and design office was established in order to improve the work of all of the plant's designers, the result of which was the development of aircraft machine guns - PV-1 and ShKAS. Between 1927 and 1938 the plant built the country's first spinning machines. Between 1932 and 1939 the plant mastered the production of milling machines, and started to massively produce three models of them (versatile, horizontal and vertical). In 1939 Fedor Tokarev (rus. Фёдор Васильевич Токарев) created a self-loading rifle SVT-38, which served as a basis for the SVT-40. In the years 1927–1939 besides producing SVT-38 rifles, UB and ShKAS machine guns, the factory also produced B-2 cannons.

This page was last edited on 25 October 2017, at 00:59.
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tula_Arms_Plant under CC BY-SA license.

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