Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. Temperature is measured with a thermometer, historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius scale, denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin scale. The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities.

The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description. Absolute zero is denoted as 0 K on the Kelvin scale, −273.15 °C on the Celsius scale, and −459.67 °F on the Fahrenheit scale.

Temperature is a proportional measure of the average translational kinetic energy of the random motions of the constituent microscopic particles in a system (such as electrons, atoms, and molecules); based on the historical development of the kinetic theory of gases, but more rigorous definitions include all quantum states of matter.

Temperature is important in all fields of natural science, including physics, chemistry, Earth science, medicine, and biology, as well as most aspects of daily life.

Many physical processes are affected by temperature, such as

Temperature scales differ in two ways: the point chosen as zero degrees, and the magnitudes of incremental units or degrees on the scale.

This page was last edited on 21 March 2018, at 23:36.
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature under CC BY-SA license.

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