Rutabaga has many national and regional names. Rutabaga is the common North American term for the plant. This comes from the Swedish dialectal word rotabagge, from rot (root) + bagge (short, stumpy object). In the U.S., the plant is also known as Swedish turnip or yellow turnip.
The term swede (from "Swedish turnip") is used in many Commonwealth Nations, including much of England, Australia, and New Zealand. The name turnip is also used in parts of Northern and Midland England, the West Country (particularly Cornwall), Ireland, the Isle of Man, Manitoba, Ontario and Atlantic Canada. In Wales, according to region it is variously known as maip, rwden, erfin, swedsen or swejen in Welsh and as swede or turnip in English.
In Scotland, it is known as turnip, and in Scots as tumshie or neep (from Old English næp, Latin napus). Some areas of South-East Scotland, such as Berwickshire and Roxburghshire, still use the term baigie, possibly a derivative of the Swedish dialectal word rotabagge. The term turnip is also used for the white turnip (Brassica rapa ssp rapa).
Some will also refer to both swede and (white) turnip as just turnip (this word is also derived from næp). In North-East England, turnips and swedes are colloquially called snadgers, snaggers (archaic) or narkies. Rutabaga is also known as a ‘moot’ in the Isle of Man and the Manx Gaelic for turnip is ‘napin’.
Its common name in Sweden is kålrot (literally "cabbage/kale root"). Similarly, in Denmark it is known as kålroe and kålrabi, while in Norway it is known as kålrabi or kålrot and in Estonia as kaalikas. In Denmark and Norway, kålrabi is sometimes confused with Swedish kålrabbi (kohlrabi). The Finnish term is lanttu. The Romanian term is nap. Rutabaga is known by many different regional names in German, of which Kohlrübe and Steckrübe are the most widespread and most commonly used in lists of ingredients.