Historically, Strathblane was the name of a parish in Stirlingshire which comprised three villages: Edenkill, Netherton and Mugdock. Mugdock was the ancient seat of the Earls of Lennox, and to the east of Strathblane lies the town of Lennoxtown. Blanefield is a settlement contiguous with Strathblane's northwestern fringe. To the west is the volcanic plug Dumgoyne, Glengoyne Distillery and the Trossachs National Park. The West Highland Way—a long-distance trail—passes close to the village.
The Gaelic name Srath Bhlàthain translates to English as "the valley of the Blane", with reference to the Blane Water, a watercourse. The Blane Water (Uisge Bhlàthain) has also been referred to as Beul-abhainn (Scottish Gaelic pronunciation: ) meaning "mouth-river" after the numerous burns merging. One of its tributaries, the Ballagan Burn passes over the waterfall the Spout of Ballagan which shows 192 alternate strata of coloured shales and limestone (including pure alabaster). The Blane flows into the Endrick, which, in its turn, flows westward to Loch Lomond.
Historian William Forbes Skene suggested Strathblane to have been the site of the battle between the Britons and Picts in the year 750, during which Talorgan son of Fergus, brother of Óengus I of the Picts, was slain. The Annales Cambriae and Annals of Ulster refer to the battlefield as "Mocetauc" or "Catohic" respectively, which Skene and others have suggested referred to Mugdock, a locality at the edge of Lennox, within the parish of Strathblane.
A rise in population during the early 19th century was due in part to the development of a large calico printfield at Blanefield (employing 78 adults and 45 children under 14) and two bleachfields at Dumbrock (employing 67 adults and 14 children under 14) working 10–11 hours per day, 6 days a week. There is no sign of this industry in the village today which has a rural, picturesque aspect while the majority of parishioners now commute to work in neighbouring towns.
The principal local family were the Edmonstones of Duntreath who had ancient links to the Kings of Scotland. In 1374 Sir John Edmonstone was an ambassador to France for King Robert II, subsequently his son Sir Archibald Edmonstone settled the family at Duntreath. In 1425, Sir Archibald's son Sir William Edmondstone of Culloden married Mary Stewart, Princess of Scotland (second daughter of Robert III) and they had a son whom they named Sir William Edmonstone of Duntreath. The family gained a house at Colzium when the Livingstones of Kilsyth lost the estate due to their Jacobite sympathies. More recently Edward VII's mistress Alice Keppel (née Alice Frederica Edmonstone) was the eighth daughter of the 4th Baronet, and is the great-grandmother of Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay, the second wife of HRH The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay.