Romanian is a part of the Balkan-Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin separated from the Western Romance during the 5th–8th centuries. To distinguish it within that group in comparative linguistics it is called Daco-Romanian as opposed to its closest relatives, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian.
During Soviet times—and to some extent even today—Romanian was called Moldovan in the Republic of Moldova, although the Constitutional Court ruled in 2013 that "the official language of the republic is Romanian".
Immigrant Romanian speakers are scattered across many other countries worldwide, most notably Italy, Spain, Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Austria, France, Portugal, Switzerland, the United States, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Greece, Cyprus, Australia, or New Zealand.
The influence of the military in Dacia is due to the distribution of the military units in this bridgehead of the Roman Empire's defense (two legiones, 12 alae, 41 cohortes and 13 numeri), contrary, e.g., to that of the Rhenish army, which was concentrated at the Germanic limes and so left little influence on the local spoken Gallo-Latin. The identification of numerous words of military (Dacian-)Roman usage – 52 semantic specific changes and inherited military Latin words with their classical meanings – is at the heart of the hypothesis that the Romanian language is the continuation of the military Latin spoken in the north-eastern frontier region of the Roman Empire. These vestiges of military usage are unique to Romanian in its language family.