It is the site of one of the major engagements in the Ten-Day War for the independence of Slovenia in June 1991.
The University of Nova Gorica is located in Rožna Dolina.
The largest Jewish cemetery in Slovenia and one of the largest in the Alpe-Adria region is located in Rožna Dolina. Among other graves, it contains the tomb of the Italian philosopher Carlo Michelstaedter.
The countess Lucy Christalnigg, first victim on the Isonzo Front, was a resident of Rožna Dolina. She was on her way back to Rožna Dolina in August 1914, when she was shot by two Landsturm guards at a roadblock.