12. Mari El
14. Sakha (Yakutia)
15. North Ossetia–Alania
22. Crimea (Internationally recognised as part of Ukraine)
According to the Constitution, the Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are "republics". Most of the republics represent areas of non-Russian ethnicity, although there are several republics with Russian majority. The indigenous ethnic group of a republic that gives it its name is referred to as the "titular nationality". Due to decades (in some cases centuries) of internal migration inside Russia, each nationality is not necessarily a majority of a republic's population.
Republics differ from other federal subjects of Russia in that they have the right to establish their own official language and have their own constitution. Other federal subjects, such as krais (territories) and oblasts (provinces), are not explicitly given this right. The chief executives of many republics used to have the title of president, but in 2010 an amendment to the federal law was adopted that reserves such title exclusively for the head of the Russian state.
The level of actual autonomy granted to such political units varies but is generally quite extensive. The parliamentary assemblies of such republics have often enacted laws which are at odds with the federal constitution. The republics' executives tend to be very powerful. However, this autonomy was lessened considerably under Russian President Vladimir Putin, who sought to impose the supremacy of the federal constitution. Over the course of Putin's presidency, autonomy agreements signed between the federal government and republics after the collapse of the Soviet Union have all gradually expired. On July 24, 2017, Tatarstan became the last republic to lose its special status. The diminishing status of Russia's ethnic republics has been a cause of growing concern among its minorities in the country. In 2017, Vladimir Putin condemned mandatory lessons of minority languages in the republics and on 19 June 2018, the State Duma approved the first reading of a bill regarding the teaching of these languages in schools. Many republics subsequently dropped the teaching of minority languages to become optional.
The establishment of eight large "federal districts" above the regions and republics of Russia, with presidentially appointed governors overseeing the republics' activities, has strengthened federal control, and respect for federal supremacy in the republics. In addition, Putin strengthened the position of the republics' legislatures, while weakening their executives' power. In some republics the executive heads are elected by popular votes/for example Bashkortostan, Tatarstan etc./ while in some republics the executive heads of republics are now appointed by the President of Russia himself /for example Chechnya/. The President's nomination must be accepted by the republic's parliament. On May 30, 2014, the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, accepted Khamitov's resignation so that he could participate in the regional elections; On September 14, 2014, most of the votes (82.17%) were given to the acting head of republic by the citizens of the Bashkortostan Republic; On September 25, 2015, the inauguration process took place in the State Council-Kurultay of the Bashkortostan Republic.