Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX Latin
: Gregorius IX
(born Ugolino di Conti
; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241), was Pope
from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241. He is known for issuing the Decretales
and instituting the Papal Inquisition
, a mechanism that severely punished people accused of heresy
, in response to the failures of the episcopal inquisitions established during the time of Pope Lucius III
through his papal bull Ad abolendam
issued in 1184.
The successor of Pope Honorius III, he fully inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his cousin Pope Innocent III, and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy.
Ugolino (Hugh) was born in Anagni. The date of his birth varies in sources between c. 1145 and 1170. He received his education at the Universities of Paris and Bologna.
He was created Cardinal-Deacon of the church of Sant'Eustachio by his cousin Innocent III in December 1198. In 1206 he was promoted to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia e Velletri. He became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1218 or 1219. Upon the special request of Saint Francis, in 1220, Pope Honorius III appointed him Cardinal Protector of the order of the Franciscans.
As Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, he cultivated a wide range of acquaintances, among them the Queen of England, Isabella of Angoulême.
Gregory IX was elevated to the papacy in the papal election of 1227. He took the name "Gregory" because he formally assumed the papal office at the monastery of Saint Gregory ad Septem Solia.
Gregory's Bull Parens scientiarum of 1231, after the University of Paris strike of 1229, resolved differences between the unruly university scholars of Paris and the local authorities. His solution was in the manner of a true follower of Innocent III: he issued what in retrospect has been viewed as the magna carta of the University, assuming direct control by extending papal patronage: his Bull allowed future suspension of lectures over a flexible range of provocations, from "monstrous injury or offense" to squabbles over "the right to assess the rents of lodgings".
Alarmed by the spread of old heresies in Spain and France, as well as the violent mob action against them, in 1233 Gregory IX established the Papal Inquisition to regularize the process, although he did not approve the use of torture as a tool of investigation or for penance.
This page was last edited on 24 April 2018, at 04:24 (UTC)
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