Pisa

Pisa
Pisa (/ˈpzə/; Italian pronunciation:  (About this sound listen)) is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its leaning tower (the bell tower of the city's cathedral), the city of over 91,104 residents (around 200,000 with the metropolitan area) contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces and various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian maritime republics.

The city is also home of the University of Pisa, which has a history going back to the 12th century and also has the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, founded by Napoleon in 1810, and its offshoot, the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies as the best sanctioned Superior Graduate Schools in Italy.

Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Roman Empire 27 BC–285 AD
Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg Western Roman Empire 285–476
Kingdom of Odoacer 476–493
Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553
Simple Labarum.svg Eastern Roman Empire 553–603
Corona ferrea monza (heraldry).svg Lombard Kingdom 603–773
Charlemagne autograph.svg Carolingian Empire 774–812
Shield and Coat of Arms of the Holy Roman Emperor (c.1200-c.1300).svg March of Tuscany 812–1000
Flag of the Republic of Pisa.svg Republic of Pisa 1000–1406
Flag of Florence.svg Republic of Florence 1406–1532
Coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1562-1737).svg Duchy of Florence 1532–1569
Bandiera del granducato di Toscana (1562-1737 ).png Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1569–1801
Etrurian Kingdom and War Flag with Great Royal Coat of Arms.svg Kingdom of Etruria 1801–1807
Flag of France.svg First French Empire 1807–1815
Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1840).svg Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1815–1859
Flag of Italy.svg United Provinces of Central Italy 1859–1860
Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Kingdom of Italy 1861–1946

The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery. While the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the Pelasgi, the Greeks, the Etruscans, and the Ligurians had variously been proposed as founders of the city (for example, a colony of the ancient city of Pisa, Greece). Archaeological remains from the 5th century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and Gauls. The presence of an Etruscan necropolis, discovered during excavations in the Arena Garibaldi in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins.

Ancient Roman authors referred to Pisa as an old city. Strabo referred Pisa's origins to the mythical Nestor, king of Pylos, after the fall of Troy. Virgil, in his Aeneid, states that Pisa was already a great center by the times described; the settlers from the Alpheus coast have been credited with the founding of the city in the 'Etruscan lands'. The Virgilian commentator Servius wrote that the Teuti, or Pelops, the king of the Pisaeans, founded the town thirteen centuries before the start of the common era.

The maritime role of Pisa should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the naval ram. Pisa took advantage of being the only port along the western coast from Genoa (then a small village) to Ostia. Pisa served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against Ligurians, Gauls and Carthaginians. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony under Roman law, as Portus Pisanus. In 89 BC, Portus Pisanus became a municipium. Emperor Augustus fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name in Colonia Iulia obsequens.

This page was last edited on 24 April 2018, at 08:13.
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pisa under CC BY-SA license.

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