Miami University was chartered in 1809, and Oxford was laid out by James Heaton on March 29, 1810, by the Ohio General Assembly's order of February 6, 1810. It was established in Range 1 East, Town 5 North of the Congress Lands in the southeast quarter of Section 22, the southwest corner of Section 23, the northwest corner of Section 26, and the northeast corner of Section 27. The original village, consisting of 128 lots, was incorporated on February 23, 1830. Oxford was elevated to city status in 1971. Freedom Summer started with orientations at Western College for Women in June 1964. This event is commemorated near the Kumler Chapel on the Western campus, now a part of Miami University.
Oxford is home to an array of festivals and events throughout the year, including the Uptown Music Concerts and the award-winning Wine Festival.  Additionally, Miami University provides access to a wide range of events, from lectures sponsored by the various departments (the Humanities Department, for example, has a consistently full calendar of events open to the public ), to live performances by the Theater and Music departments. Every year a schedule of events is organized through the Miami Performing Arts Series (MPAS)  who have brought well known entertainers to town such as Trevor Noah  and Wayne Brady. 
In January 2018, the website Livability.com ranked Oxford #74 on its list of Top 100 Best Places to Live. According to the website, "Oxford features a fun, college-town atmosphere with multiple shops, restaurants, and entertainment venues." The description of Oxford also includes praise for the "several miles of hiking trails" and "affordable housing options throughout the city."
Formerly known as the Summer Music Concert Series, the Uptown Music Concerts is a four-month long event thrown by the town's visitor center, Enjoy Oxford. Every Thursday night from June through September, concert-goers are treated to a free outdoor performance in the uptown park. Musicians take the stage under the pavilion while the audience sets out chairs and blankets in the grassy knoll below. The lineup of musicians throughout the four months continues to be impressive, bringing in talent from all over the country. 
The Oxford Wine Festival is an award-winning annual summer festival that takes place in the historic uptown district of Oxford. The festival, which is thrown by the Oxford Chamber of Commerce, includes a variety of wine vendors, a beer garden, live musical performances, and booths for merchants and artisans selling handmade goods.
The Oxford Community Arts Center (OCAC) is Oxford's premier arts facility where several major events in town take place both annually and regularly. These events include the Chocolate Meltdown (a January event featuring a range of chocolate tastings) and the monthly Second Fridays event (an open house gathering where guests enjoy food, live music, and the open door studios of resident artists).
The OCAC building was previously used for the Oxford Female Institute in 1849, then as the Oxford College for Women in 1906 after the Oxford Female Institute merged with the Oxford Female College. After the closing of the school in 1928, Miami University bought the building and renovated it to the Georgian style it is today. Even with its renovations, guests can see many of the building's historical details. The building now provides Oxford with a ballroom, meeting and classroom facilities, and artist studios.  It is often used as a venue for large events such as weddings.