The uniforms of the modern army tended to reflect the uniform of those countries who were the principal advisors to the Ottoman army at the time. The Ottoman government considered adopting western style headdress for all personnel within the army, but the fez was favoured because of its user friendliness during the postures of the Islamic ritual prayer.
French style uniform and court dress were common during the early stage of the Tanzimat modernization period. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, which forced the Ottoman government to search for other role models, German and British style uniforms became popular. During World War I, the officer uniforms were mainly based on the German model. The Crimean War was the first war effort in which the modern army took part, profiling itself as a decent force.
The shift from the Classical Army (1451–1606) took more than a century beginning from failed attempts of Selim III and Alemdar Mustafa Pasha (1789) to a period of Ottoman military reforms (1826–1858) and finally Abdul Hamid II period. Abdul Hamid II, as early as 1880 sought, and two years later secured, German assistance, which culminated in the appointment of Lt. Col. Kohlcr. However. Although the consensus that Abdul Hamid II favored the modernization of the Ottoman army and the professionalization of the officer was fairly general, it seems that he neglected the military during the last fifteen years of his reign, and he also cut down the military budget. The formation of the Ottoman Modern Army was a slow process with ups and downs.
Resembling the French line infantry uniform
French-inspired palace guard dress