Endurance exercises such as running or swimming can affect the reproductive physiology of women athletes. Female runners, swimmers and ballet dancers either menstruate infrequently in comparison to non-athletic women of comparable age or exhibit amenorrhea. A more recent study shows that athletes competing in sports that emphasise thinness or a specific weight exhibit a higher rate of menstrual dysfunction than either athletes competing in sports with less focus on these or control subjects.
Breastfeeding has been linked to irregularity of menstrual cycles due to hormones that delay ovulation.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are also likely to have oligomenorrhea. PCOS is a condition in which excessive androgens (male sex hormones) are released by the ovaries. Women with PCOS show menstrual irregularities that range from oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea, to very heavy, irregular periods. The condition affects about 6% of premenopausal women.
Eating disorders can result in oligomenorrhea. Although menstrual disorders are most strongly associated with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa may also result in oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. There is some controversy regarding the mechanism for the menstrual dysregulation, since amenorrhea may sometimes precede substantial weight loss in some anorexics.