Naming "things" is a part of general human communication using words and language: it is an aspect of everyday taxonomy as people distinguish the objects of their experience, together with their similarities and differences, which observers identify, name and classify. The use of names, as the many different kinds of nouns embedded in different languages, connects nomenclature to theoretical linguistics, while the way humans mentally structure the world in relation to word meanings and experience relates to the philosophy of language.
Onomastics, the study of proper names and their origins, includes anthroponymy (concerned with human names, including personal names, surnames and nicknames); toponymy (the study of place names) and etymology (the derivation, history and use of names) as revealed through comparative and descriptive linguistics.
The scientific need for simple, stable and internationally accepted systems for naming objects of the natural world has generated many formal nomenclatural systems. Probably the best known of these nomenclatural systems are the five codes of biological nomenclature that govern the Latinized scientific names of organisms.
The word nomenclature is derived from the Latin nomen - name, and calare - to call; the Latin term nomenclatura refers to a list of names, as does the word [hujb which can also indicate a provider or announcer of names.
The study of proper names is known as onomastics, which has a wide-ranging scope encompassing all names, all languages, all geographical and cultural regions. The distinction between onomastics and nomenclature is not readily clear: onomastics is an unfamiliar discipline to most people and the use of nomenclature in an academic sense is also not commonly known. Although the two fields integrate, nomenclature concerns itself more with the rules and conventions that are used for the formation of names.
Same things may be given different names and different things may be given the same name due to the social, political, religious and cultural motivations. Closely related similar things may be considered separate, and on the other hand considerably different things might be considered same, both due to the social-political-religious contextual reasons, for example closely related mutually intelligible sanskritised-Hindustani language Hindi versus arabised-Hindustani language Urdu being favored as separate languages by hindus and muslims respectively as seen in the context of hindu-muslim conflict resulting in violent 1947 Partition of India, where as mutually unintelligible speech varieties that differ considerably in structure such as Moroccan Arabic, Yemeni Arabic and Lebanese Arabic are considered same language due to the pan-Islamism religious identity.