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The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts.[1][2] The milk can flow through the nipple passively or it can be ejected by smooth muscle contractions that occur along the ductal system. The nipple is surrounded by the areola which is often a darker color than the surrounding skin.[3] It is often called a teat when referring to non-humans. Teat can also be used to describe the flexible mouthpiece of a baby bottle. In humans, nipples of both males and females can be stimulated as part of sexual arousal. In many cultures, human female nipples are sexualized,[4] or "...regarded as sex objects and evaluated in terms of their physical characteristics and sexiness."[5]

The word "nipple" most likely originates as a diminutive of neb, an Old English word meaning "beak", "nose", or "face", and which is of Germanic origin.[6] The words "teat" and "tit" share a Germanic ancestor. The second of the two, tit, was inherited directly from Proto-Germanic, while the first entered English via Old French.[7][8] The nipple is also used as an anatomical landmark. It marks the T4 (fourth thoracic vertebra) dermatome and rests over the approximate level of the diaphram.[9]

In the anatomy of mammals, a nipple, mammary papilla or teat is a small projection of skin containing the outlets for 15–20 lactiferous ducts arranged cylindrically around the tip. The skin of the nipple is rich in a supply of special nerves that are sensitive to certain stimuli: these are slowly-adapting and rapidly-adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Mechanoreceptors are identified respectively by Type I slowly-adapting with multiple Merkel corpuscle end-organs and Type II slowly-adapting with single Ruffini corpuscle end-organs, as well as Type I rapidly-adapting with multiple Meissner corpuscle end-organs and Type II rapidly-adapting with single Pacinian corpuscle end-organs.

The dominant innervation to the nipple is derived from the lateral cutaneous branches of fourth intercostal nerve.[10] The physiological purpose of nipples is to deliver milk to the infant, produced in the female mammary glands during lactation. Marsupials and eutherian mammals typically have an even number of nipples arranged bilaterally, from as few as two to as many as 19.[11]

Since nipples change throughout the life span in men and women, the anatomy of the nipple can change and this change may be expected and considered normal.

The average projection and size of human female nipples is slightly more than 38 inch (9.5 mm).[14]

The lymphatic ducts that drain the nipple are the same for the breast.[2] The axillary nodes are the apical axillary nodes, the lateral group and the anterior group.[15] 75% of the lymph is drained through the axillary lymph nodes located near the armpit. The rest of the drainage leaves the nipple and breast through infroclavicular, pectoral, or parasternal nodes. The arterial supply to the nipple and breast originates from the anterior intercostal branches of the internal thoracic (mammary) arteries; lateral thoracic artery; and thoracodorsal arteries. The venous vessels parallel the arteries.[2]

This page was last edited on 11 July 2018, at 03:33 (UTC).
Reference: under CC BY-SA license.

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