The district was historically part of the Manor of Nuthurst, one of several manors lying within the township of Moston. The place-name Nuthurst still survives in the area (Nuthurst Road and Nuthurst Park). The archaic district of Theale Moor, lying partly in Chadderton, was also in this area. During the Middle Ages Theale Moor was the location of a violent land dispute that was only resolved when boundary stakes were set up on the common moorland.
The name 'New Moston' originated in 1850 when the name was chosen by a building society which formed, purchased and laid out 57 acres of land to create a residential hamlet. It initially occupied an area on the eastern border of the historic township of Moston, bordering the Whitegate area of Chadderton and Failsworth in the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. The area expanded consideraby following the opening of the A633, Broadway, in 1925.
The area is home to New Moston Primary School (founded in 1901), St Margaret Mary's Primary school, New Moston Library and New Moston Athletic football club, who play in the Chapel Road 6-a-side League.
St Margaret Mary RC Church was founded in 1935. The current church building opened in 1957. This growing parish was formed in 1935, partly from St. Dunstan's, Failsworth, and Hollinwood parishes. It began with the celebration of Mass at the Broadway Baths until a hall was built and first occupied in June 1936. Part of the district served by the parish was given up in 1940 to help in the formation of the new parish of St. John Bosco.