The facade of the museum is built from the front of an Islamic palace, which was transferred and restored as the museum's main entrance. The Museum's unique findings are: Restorations of the Dura Europos Synagogue from the 3rd century AD; The hypogeum of Yarhai from Palmyra, dating to 108 AD; And the façade and frescoes of Qasr Al-Hayr al Gharbi, which dates back to the 8th century and lies 80 km south of Palmyra. Many other important historical artifacts can be found in various wings; such as the world's first alphabet from Ugarit and many Roman era mosaics. The exhibits are organised into 5 wings;
Remains and skeletons from different Stone-Age periods, most notably the neolitihic period, as well as objects and finds discovered in the basin of the Orontes River, the Euphrates and Tell Ramad in southwestern Syria.
Many Exhibits from ancient sites such as Ebla, Mari, Ugarit and Tell Halaf. The most important of these is an Ugaritan tablet, on which is the world's first Alphabet. Other findings include tablets and amulets from Ugari, Ebla and Mari, and sculptures from Tell Halaf.