The rooms dedicated to Ugarit contains small clay tablets of what is known to be the oldest Alphabet in the world, the Ugaritic Alphabet. It also contains the ivory head of an unknown Ugaritan royal, a collection of Ugaritic seals, and Mycenaean pottery imported from Greece. Another room which is devoted to Mari, Syrian Bronze Age city on the Euphrates, contains the 3rd Millennium treasure of King Cansud. Aside from exhibits from ancient pre-Classical Syria, the west wing contains rooms exhibiting pottery, sculptures and glassware ranging from the Phoenicians to the classical periods. Classical statues carved in ivory, bronze, and marble, which were found at Palmyra, Latakia, Bosra are also exhibited, next to that room lies the Palmyra room which is dedicated to Palmyra, the Roman colonia in the Syrian desert which flourished in the 3rd century due to its strategic importance and location on the Silk road.
The most popular part of the museum is the 2nd century AD Synagogue that has been reconstructed. Its walls are covered with Talmudic insriptions and paintings of scenes from the Scriptures.
Although the museum's collection was rather small and most of it was kept at Madrasseh al-Adiliyeh, the museum gradually increased in size and the discovery of the Umayyad palace of Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbi in the Syrian desert in 1936 created plans to improve the museum. A building located next to Al-Takiyya al-Sulaymaniya was chosen for the establishment of the National Museum of Damascus.