Over the course of many centuries, the cathedral grew from a simple Carolingian church to a monumental basilica. The High Gothic nave and its large tracery windows inspired a number of other buildings. During World War II, the church was almost completely destroyed by an aerial bombing conducted by US Army Air Force B17s on 28 March 1945. This almost completely destroyed the town center including the town hall and cathedral and resulted in the death of over 180 people.
The church was rebuilt in the 1950s by architect Werner March. The church contains a number of valuable art treasures.
From Rome in the 8th century the remains of St. Gorgonius were translated by Saint Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz to the monastery of Gorze in Lorraine. Some of the relics were later translated to Minden Cathedral.