Milton grew from a small population of 31 peasants in 1086, growing slowly up to 170 people making up 40 families in 1728. The Ordnance Survey map of 1897 shows the extent of the buildings to be clustered around the High Street and Fen Road, with Milton Hall occupying the greatest area. Compared with the Ordnance Survey map of 1901 showing just a modest expansion, but already possessing its two churches as well a school, smithy, brewery, and five public houses. The population expanded to around 740 then remained fairly static in the period of the 1910s to the 1950s, the parish then grew more rapidly to greater than 1,700 in 1971..
Milton expanded considerably in the late 1980s when two large housing estates were built between the bypass and the village. This resulted in a doubling of the population between the 1981 and 1991 censuses.
The A10 bypass was built between 1976 and 1978 around the west edge of village, splitting Butt Lane into two parts. As part of the Great Eastern Railway the Cambridge-Ely line was opened in 1845 bypassing the village to the east but with no station. The nearest station is Cambridge North railway station since opening in May 2017, approximately 1.6 miles walk/bike from the centre of the village.
The village possesses four pubs, three of which are Grade II listed buildings. A brewery, Milton Brewery, established in June 1999, moved to nearby Waterbeach in July 2012, although the village had previously had a brewery on Fen Road as early as 1901. There are two churches: All Saints' Church, which serves the Church of England parish of Milton, and a New Apostolic Church.