Persepolis 24.11.2009 11-12-14.jpg
The Medes[N 1] (/mdz/, Old Persian Māda-, Ancient Greek: Μῆδοι, Hebrew: מָדַי‬) were an ancient Iranian people[N 2] who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region.[5] Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown.[6]

A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.

Besides Ecbatana (modern Hamadan), the other cities existing in Media were Laodicea (modern Nahavand)[7] and the mound that was the largest city of the Medes, Rhages (present-day Rey). The fourth city of Media was Apamea, near Ecbatana, whose precise location is now unknown. In later periods, Medes and especially Mede soldiers are identified and portrayed prominently in ancient archaeological sites such as Persepolis, where they are shown to have a major role and presence in the military of the Achaemenid Empire.

According to the Histories of Herodotus, there were six Median tribes:[8]

Thus Deioces collected the Medes into a nation, and ruled over them alone. Now these are the tribes of which they consist: the Busae, the Paretaceni, the Struchates, the Arizanti, the Budii, and the Magi.

The six Median tribes resided in Media proper, the triangular shaped area between Ecbatana, Rhagae and Aspadana.[9] In modern Iran,[10] that is the area between Tehran, Isfahan and Hamadan. Of the Median tribes, the Magi resided in Rhaga,[11] modern Tehran.[12] It was a type of sacred caste, which ministered to the spiritual needs of the Medes.[13] The Paretaceni tribe resided in and around Aspadana, modern Isfahan,[9][14][15] the Arizanti lived in and around Kashan[9] and the Busae tribe lived in and around the future Median capital of Ecbatana.[9] The Struchates and the Budii lived in villages in the Median triangle.[16]

The original source for different words used to call the Median people, their language and homeland is a directly transmitted Old Iranian geographical name which is attested as the Old Persian "Māda-" (sing. masc.).[17] The meaning of this word is not precisely established.[17][18] The linguist W. Skalmowski proposes a relation with the proto-Indo European word "med(h)-" meaning "central, suited in the middle" by referring to Old Indic "madhya-" and Old Iranian "maidiia-" both carrying the same meaning[17] and having descendants including Latin medium, Greek méso, and German mittel.

The Median people are mentioned by that name in many ancient texts. According to the Histories of Herodotus;[19]

This page was last edited on 13 July 2018, at 23:08 (UTC).
Reference: under CC BY-SA license.

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