Métis in Canada


First Nations



The Métis in Canada (/mˈt/; Canadian French: ; European French: ; Michif: ) are a group of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers. They are recognized as one of Canada's aboriginal peoples under the Constitution Act of 1982, along with First Nations and Inuit peoples. As of 2011, they number over 451,797. Métis in Canada represent the majority of those identifying as Métis (smaller communities also exist in the United States).

While the Métis initially developed as the mixed-race descendants of early unions between First Nations people and colonial-era European settlers (usually indigenous women and settler men), within generations (particularly in central and western Canada), a distinct Métis culture developed. The early mothers were usually Wabanaki, Algonquin, Saulteaux, Cree, Ojibwe, Menominee, or of mixed descent from these peoples. Their unions with European men were often of the type known as Marriage à la façon du pays ("according to the custom of the country").

After New France was ceded to Great Britain's control, there was an important distinction between French Métis born of francophone voyageur fathers, and the Anglo-Métis (known as "countryborn") descended from English or Scottish fathers. Today these two cultures have essentially coalesced into one Métis tradition, which does not preclude a range of other Métis cultural expressions across Canada. Such mixed-race people were historically referred to by other terms, many of which are now considered to be offensive, such as Mixed-bloods, Half-breeds, Bois-Brûlés, Bungi, Black Scots, and Jackatars. However, the contemporary Métis are a specific indigenous people and culture; the term does not apply to every person of "mixed" heritage or ancestry.

While people of Métis culture or heritage are found across Canada, in the more restrictive sense, the traditional Métis "homeland" includes much of the Canadian Prairies centering on southern and central parts of Manitoba. Closely related are the Métis in the United States, primarily those in border areas like northern Michigan, the Red River Valley, and eastern Montana. These were areas in which there was considerable Aboriginal and European mixing due to the 19th-century fur trade.

This page was last edited on 8 June 2018, at 17:08 (UTC).
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%A9tis_in_Canada under CC BY-SA license.

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