Vicente was born on 30 January 1994 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Her younger sister Lohaynny Vicente is also an international badminton player. When Luana was six, her father, a drug dealer, was killed in a shootout with police. Following her father's death her mother moved the family from the west of the city to Chacrinha, a favela in the north of Rio. She now lives with her sister in Campinas, São Paulo, in a house funded by the Brazilian Badminton Federation.
Vicente won a silver medal in the women's doubles at the 2015 Pan American Games held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, playing alongside her sister . The pair defeated Daigenis Saturria and Bermary Altagracia Polanco Muñoz of the Dominican Republic in the quarterfinals then Alexander Bruce and Phyllis Chan of Canada in the semifinals. In the final they lost to the American pairing of Eva Lee and Paula Lynn Obanana by a score of 14−21, 6−21, to finish as runners-up.
Vicente competed at the 2018 South American Games, winning the gold medal in the team event, and also the silver medals in the women's and mixed doubles event.