Ancient orthography did not distinguish between i and j or between u and v. Many modern works distinguish u from v but not i from j. In this article, both distinctions are shown as they are helpful when tracing the origin of English words. See also Latin spelling and pronunciation.
The citation form for nouns (the form normally shown in Latin dictionaries) is the Latin nominative singular, but that typically does not exhibit the root form from which English nouns are generally derived.
In some Latin verbs, a preposition caused a vowel change in the root of the verb. For example, "capiō" prefixed with "in" becomes "incipio".