Arctic explorer Wilhelm August Graah of the Danish Navy explored this area in 1828–30, during an expedition in search of the legendary Eastern Norse Settlement and named this lonely peninsula after Odin.
Odinland is surrounded to the southeast by the Bernstorff Fjord (Kangertittivaq) —across which lies the Thorland Peninsula, to the east by the Irminger Sea and to the north by the Umiiviip Kangertiva (Gyldenløve Fjord). To the west lies the Fimbul Glacier and to the northwest the peninsula is attached to the mainland.
Cape Mosting (Kap Møsting) is a steep and prominent headland at the southeastern end near the mouth of the Bernstorff Fjord, at . To the north of this point, the shore is bold and precipitous with glaciers protruding into the sea at every coastal cleft or ravine until the mouth of Quseertaliip Kangertiva (Otte Krumpen Fjord). At this point the northeastern part of Odinland forms the Kangerajiip Apusiia (Colberger Heide) subpeninsula, limited in the southeast by the small Quseertaliip Kangertiva (Otte Krumpen Fjord), to the east by the Irminger Sea, to the north by the Umivik Bay and to the northwest by the Vikingevig.
Unlike the peninsulas further south Odinland is heavily glaciated, with the large Sleipner Glacier flowing westwards from its central part and the Gjallerbroen flowing eastwards. The Ydun Glacier, Gerd Glacier and Gymer Glacier are smaller glaciers flowing into the Bernstorff Fjord from the southern shore. The Gungner Ice Cap is located in a roughly eastern position in the middle of the peninsula.
In Odinland there are several nunataks protruding above the ice, with Ensom Majestaet ('Lonely Majesty'), Ensomme Skraent ('Lonely Slope'), Eqaluttusoq, Hammerfaldet, Hustoppen ('Housetop'), Pelikanen, Spidstoppen and Tyrs Bjerge in the main peninsula and Alukajik, Ørnen, Tommeltotten and Trillingerne ('Triplets') in the Kangerajiip Apusiia (Colberger Heide) area. The highest point in Odinland is 1,591 m (5,220 ft) m high Ensom Majestaet rising in the central part of the peninsula at .