Established in 1944, Kaluga Oblast is located in the heart of the European part of Russia. It has well-developed transportation and utility infrastructure. The oblast has been demonstrating high economic growth rates, has substantial human reserves, and is one of the largest cultural, educational and scientific centers of Russia.
Kaluga Oblast lies in the central part of the East European Plain. The oblast's territory is located between the Central Russian Upland (with and average elevation of above 200 m and a maximum elevation of 275 m in the southeast), the Smolensk–Moscow Upland and the Dnepr-Desna province. Most of the oblast is occupied by plains, fields and forests with diverse flora and fauna. The administrative center is located on the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The western part of the oblast - located within the drift plain - is dominated by the Spas-Demensk ridge. To the south of it is an outwash plain that is part of the Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, with average elevation up to 200 m.
From north to south, Kaluga Oblast extends for more than 220 km, from 53°30' to 55°30' northern altitude, and east to west – for 220 km. Its area is 29,800 km².
The oblast's territory is crossed by major international motor and railways, linking Kaluga with Moscow, Bryansk, Kiev, Lvov and Warsaw.
Kaluga Oblast borders on:
Kaluga Oblast's modern terrain replicates pre-glacial terrain: undulating, with river valleys, ravines and hollows. Some glacial lakes have been preserved, like the oblast's deepest lake – the Bezdon.
The oblast is located between the Central Russian upland and the Smolensk-Moscow upland. There are both low plains elevating to 200 m above sea level, and high plains rising above 200 m. The southeastern part of the oblast is occupied by the Central Russian upland, and extreme northwest – by the Spas-Demensk ridge. The uplands are separated by the Yugorsk-Protvino lowland. In the extreme southwest, the oblast is covered by Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands, and in the central part – by the Baryatino-Sukhinichy plain. The highest point of the oblast is located on the Spas-Demensk ridge at 279 m (Zaitseva mountain), and the lowest – in the valley of the Oka (120 m above sea level). Thus the amplitude of the terrain is 160 m.