The Jacobite rising of 1745 or 'The '45' (Scottish Gaelic: Bliadhna Theàrlaich , "The Year of Charles") refers to the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart, also known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or "the Young Pretender" to regain the British throne for the House of Stuart. It was the last of a series of rebellions that began in 1689 with further revolts in 1708, 1715 and 1719.
The Rising forms part of the War of the Austrian Succession and took place with the bulk of the British Army in Europe. Charles launched the Rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. The Jacobite army invaded England, reaching Derby on 4 December but were forced to retreat due to lack of support from English sympathisers and in danger of being cut off by vastly superior government forces. Despite a second victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, they were defeated at the Battle of Culloden in April, Charles escaped to France in September and the Stuart cause ended.
In 1688, the Glorious Revolution replaced James II with his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William. Since neither Mary or her sister Anne had surviving children, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the English and Irish thrones and after the 1707 Act of Union that of Great Britain. When Anne became the last Stuart monarch in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Electress Sophia of Hanover not her Catholic half-brother James III. Sophia died two months before Anne in August 1714; her son became George I and the pro-Hanoverian Whigs controlled government for the next 30 years.
Jacobites remained a significant element in British and Irish politics but with very different and often competing goals. The Stuarts themselves were absolutist Unionists who wanted tolerance for Catholicism. English Jacobites were primarily Protestant Church of England Tories but unreliable since resentment at exclusion from government was a key aspect; failure to appreciate the post-1715 decline in English support was a major factor in the failure of the 1745 rising. Irish Jacobites expected the fulfilment of promises made by a reluctant James II for an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated by Cromwell. Most Scottish Jacobites were Protestant Nationalists who opposed 'arbitrary' rule and wanted to dissolve the Union. These divisions became increasingly visible in 1745.