Arboleda's first club was Categoría Primera A team Deportivo Pasto, whom he was with in the youth ranks until 2014 when he departed to sign for Argentine Primera División side Banfield. He was an unused substitute three times during the 2015 campaign prior to making his professional debut in the following season on 20 March 2016 against River Plate.
Arboleda represented Colombia's U17 team, winning four caps at the 2013 South American Under-17 Football Championship in Argentina. He was selected for Colombia's preliminary squad ahead of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. However, he did not make the final cut to 23.