Hydroxide

Lewis structure of the hydroxide ion showing three lone pairs on the oxygen atom
Space-filling representation of the hydroxide ion
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH. It consists of an oxygen and hydrogen atom held together by a covalent bond, and carries a negative electric charge. It is an important but usually minor constituent of water. It functions as a base, a ligand, a nucleophile and a catalyst. The hydroxide ion forms salts, some of which dissociate in aqueous solution, liberating solvated hydroxide ions. Sodium hydroxide is a multi-million-ton per annum commodity chemical. A hydroxide attached to a strongly electropositive center may itself ionize, liberating a hydrogen cation (H+), making the parent compound an acid.

The corresponding electrically neutral compound •HO is the hydroxyl radical. The corresponding covalently-bound group –OH of atoms is the hydroxyl group. Hydroxide ion and hydroxyl group are nucleophiles and can act as a catalyst in organic chemistry.

Many inorganic substances which bear the word "hydroxide" in their names are not ionic compounds of the hydroxide ion, but covalent compounds which contain hydroxyl groups.

The hydroxide ion is a natural part of water, because of the self-ionization reaction:

The equilibrium constant for this reaction, defined as

has a value close to 10−14 at 25 °C, so the concentration of hydroxide ions in pure water is close to 10−7 mol∙dm−3, in order to satisfy the equal charge constraint. The pH of a solution is equal to the decimal cologarithm of the hydrogen cation concentration; the pH of pure water is close to 7 at ambient temperatures. The concentration of hydroxide ions can be expressed in terms of pOH, which is close to 14 − pH, so pOH of pure water is also close to 7. Addition of a base to water will reduce the hydrogen cation concentration and therefore increase the hydroxide ion concentration (increase pH, decrease pOH) even if the base does not itself contain hydroxide. For example, ammonia solutions have a pH greater than 7 due to the reaction NH3 + H+NH+
4
, which results in a decrease in hydrogen cation concentration and an increase in hydroxide ion concentration. pOH can be kept at a nearly constant value with various buffer solutions.

This page was last edited on 25 May 2018, at 02:02.
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydroxide under CC BY-SA license.

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