Hans Peter Ingerslev graduated from the Cathedral School in Aarhus in 1849 and in 1864 he inherited Marselisborg Manor from his father. He was president of Viby parish council between 1865 and 1874 and member of Aarhus County council between 1865 and 1885. In 1873, Ingerslev was elected to the Danish Folketing for Højre, a predecessor for the Conservative People's Party, and he served for two terms; from 1873 to 1876 and from 1879 to 1884. From 1884 to his death, Ingerslev served in the Landsting. From 1885 to 1896 he was Minister of the Interior.
During his tenure as Minister of the Interior, Ingerslev accomplished laws related to social services, pensions and healthcare. Furthermore, he contributed to the establishment of Freeport of Copenhagen. Shortly before he died in 1896, Ingerslev signed a sales agreement with Aarhus City Council which bought Marselisborg Manor the year after.
In Hans Peter Ingerslev's native Aarhus, the street of Ingerslevs Boulevard and the square of Ingerslev's Plads were established in 1903 and 1912 respectively and named after him, both located in the neighbourhood of Frederiksbjerg. In Copenhagen, the street of Ingerslevsgade on Vesterbro was also named for him.