Haji Bektash Veli

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Haji Bektash Veli or Ḥājī Baktāsh Walī (Persian: حاجی بکتاش ولیḤājī Baktāš Walī; Turkish: Hacı Bektaş-ı Veli) was an Alevi Muslim mystic, saint, Sayyid, humanist, and philosopher, who lived from 1209 to 1271.[1] He lived and taught from approximately 1209 to 1271 in Anatolia.[1] He is revered among Alevis for an Islamic understanding that is esoteric (spiritual), rational, progressive and humanistic. Alevi and Bektashi Muslims believe the path of Haji Bektash is the path of ʿAli ibn Abu Talib, since Ali was the source of Bektash's teachings. His original name was "Sayyid Muhammad ibn Sayyid Ibrāhim Ātā", was one of the figures who flourished in the Sultanate of Rum and had an important influence on the Turkish nomads of Asia Minor.[2] He is also referred to as the Sultan of Hearts[3] and the Derwish of the Derwishes.[4] Haji Bektash Veli was a descendant of Musa Kazim, the Seventh Imam of the Athnā‘ashariyyah Shi'a Muslim sect.

Not much is known about him, his origins are shrouded in mystery and much of his biography is based on legends.[5] It is assumed that he was of Turkish[6][7][8][9][10][11][12] or Persian descent,[1][13][14][15][16] and belonged to a group of Khorasani migrants in Anatolia who had left their homeland during the Mongol conquests.[17] According to "The history of Aşıkpaşazade" (Aşıkpaşazade Tarihi), written by one of the grandsons of "Aşık Pasha" who was the son of "Muhlis Paşa" (Muhlees Pāshā) who was the son of renowned Bābā Eliyās al-Khorāsānī, "Sayyeed Muhammad ibn Sayyeed Ebrāheem Ātā" had come to Sivas, Anatolia from Khorasan with his brother “Menteş” (Mantash) to become affiliated with the tariqat of Bābā Eliyās al-Khorāsānī. On the other hand, the famous reference book of Bektaşi order, Valāyat-Nāma-i Hādjī Baktāsh-ī Wālī, claims that "Haji Bektash" was the murshid of Bābā Rāss’ūl-Allāh (Bābā Eliyās al-Khorāsānī).[18]

The name attributed to him by his followers can be translated as "The Pilgrim Saint Bektash." The Haji title implies that he had made the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina to perform Hajj. He is the eponym of the Bektashi Sufi order and is considered as one of the principal teachers of Alevism. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the "center and source of his teachings" was Ali ibn Abu Talib, whom Alevis believe to be the righteous successor of Muhammad while also "acknowledging the twelve Shia Imams" and "holding Jafar as-Sadiq in high esteem".[5] Despite his Shia belief and his unorthodox teachings, he is considered a renowned figure in the history and culture of both, the Ottoman Empire and the modern nation-state Turkey. On the other hand, Ibn Khallikan reports that Shī'ite tendencies belonged not to him but rather to his murids, who took refuge in his tekke at Suluca Kara Oyuk in Kırşehir after the Babai Revolt.[19]

Haji Bektash was born in Nishapur. It is reported in some Bektashi legends that Haji Bektash was a follower and the caliph ("representative") of Khwaja Ahmad Yasavi, a Sufi mystic from Central Asia who had great influence on the Turkic nomads of the steppes. However, there are no signs of Yasavi influence in the original teachings of Haji Bektash[20][21] and this claim is rejected by modern scholars, since Khoja Akhmet Yassawi lived nearly one hundred years before Haji Bektash.[22]

Actually, the sisilah of Hadji Baktāsh Wālī reaches to the "Yassaw’īyyah tariqah" through another but a similar tariqah, which is well known as the "Wafā’īyyah tariqah" of Abu’l Wafā al-Khwarazmī, who was a murid of Khoja Ahmad Yasavi and the murshid of Dede Ğarkhen, who was in turn the murshid of Bābā Rasul Eliyās al-Khorāsānī. Modern research connects him to another important religious movement of that time: to the Qalandariyah movement and to Rāss’ūl-Allāh Bābā Eliyās al-Khorāsānī († 1240), an influential mystic from Eastern Persia, who was the murshid of Aybak Bābā, who was in turn the murshid of one of the leading actors of the Babai Revolt, namely Bābā Ishāq Kafarsudī as well. Eventually, Bābā Eliyās Khorāsānī was held responsible for the Babai Revolt organized by Bābā Ishāq Kafarsudī, and consequently executed by Mūbārez’ūd-Dīn-i Armāğān-Shāh,[23] the supreme commander-in-chief of the armies of the Anatolian Seljuks.

The original Bektashi teachings in many ways resemble the teachings of the Khorasanian Qalandar’īyyah and that of Rāss’ūl-Allāh Bābā Eliyās.[17][24] Hajji Baktāsh Wālī was the murid of "Lokhmānn Bābā" (Lokhmānn Sarakhsī) who was one of the four most famous murids of Bābā Rāsūl (Eliyās al-Khorāsānī), as well. "Lokhmānn Bābā," on the other hand, was also a murid of the renowned Qalandariyah Sufi Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar who was the murid of Khwaja Ahmad Yasavī. For these reasons, his silsila gets connected to Ahmad-i Yasavī through two different channels, one by means of "The Wafā’iyyah tariqah" of Abu’l Wafā al-Khwarazmī, and the other through the Qalandar’īyyah Sufi Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar. He was highly respected by the Sultanate of Rum due to his amicable attitude during the Babai Revolt, and his Khanqah in Suluca Kara Oyuk was permitted to remain open during and after the Babai Revolt thereby saving the most of the lives of the piteous Alevi survivors of this ominous rebellion.

The paternal line of Haji Bektash Veli:[25]

Fatimah Zahra (wife of Imam Ali daughter of Prophet Muhammad)

This page was last edited on 12 June 2018, at 11:24 (UTC).
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hac%C4%B1_Bekta%C5%9F-%C4%B1_Veli under CC BY-SA license.

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