It has been detected as a transient species in the gas phase; also at low temperature (3.5 K) following the reaction of laser ablated gallium atoms and dihydrogen, and more recently in an argon matrix doped with vapour over solid digallane, Ga2H6.
I.R spectroscopic studies indicate that monomeric GaH3 has a trigonal planar structure Theoretical Ga-H bond lengths have been calculated as being in the range 155.7 pm to 158.7 pm
Monomeric GaH3 dimerises in the vapor phase to form Ga2H6, digallane(6) and the enthalpy change associated with the gas phase dissociation reaction Ga2H6 → 2GaH3 has been experimentally estimated as 59 +/- 16 kJ mol−1.
The production of adducts can proceed via the direct reaction of digallane(6) or more often due to the thermal fragility of digallane(6) (which decomposes to gallium metal and hydrogen above -20 °C) using a tetrahydridogallate salt as a starting point (e.g. LiGaH4) or alternatively via ligand displacement from an existing adduct. Examples are:-