The idea of a gas sculpture also appeared in the book Gog, by Giovanni Papini (1881–1956).
An example of pure water fog sculpture is in the sculpture garden at the National Gallery of Australia in Canberra. A large bank of very small nozzles is arrayed on the edge of a small rush-filled pond, and when the power is switched on a fine mist of fog billows out. The "sculpture" has a continuously changing shape as it is affected by the water, the rushes, and the air currents in the area.
Cold water fog nozzle technologies were developed by industry in the late 1960s for factory air particulate control and agricultural orchard freeze prevention. These high pressure systems force filtered water at 1,500 to 3,000 pounds per square inch (10,000–21,000 kPa) through custom nozzles to atomize the water into billions of ultra-fine droplets below 10 micrometres (0.00039 in) in size. In industrial applications this also provides cooling due to rapid evaporation.
Artists use this cold water fog technology to make experimental artworks that allow the viewer to safely interact and become fully immersed in the fog.
High temperature steam fog from underground steam utility lines used for commercial heat transfer, and small boiler sources, are also used by artists for atmospheric visual displays, and as a dynamic projection surfaces.
In the commercial entertainment industry these various water fog systems are used for special effects in movies, and for theme park atmospherics.
Some kinetic sculptures contain other gaseous elements, such as the sculptures of Jean-Paul Riopelle's La Joute, which includes natural gas fire jets, a water fountain, and bronze sculptural elements.