Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam^{[1]}^{[2]}, and Steven Weinberg^{[3]} were awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics for their contributions to the unification of the weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.^{[4]}^{[5]} The existence of the electroweak interactions was experimentally established in two stages, the first being the discovery of neutral currents in neutrino scattering by the Gargamelle collaboration in 1973, and the second in 1983 by the UA1 and the UA2 collaborations that involved the discovery of the W and Z gauge bosons in proton–antiproton collisions at the converted Super Proton Synchrotron. In 1999, Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus Veltman were awarded the Nobel prize for showing that the electroweak theory is renormalizable.

Mathematically, the unification is accomplished under an *SU*(2) × *U*(1) gauge group. The corresponding gauge bosons are the **three** W bosons of weak isospin from *SU(2)* (*W _{1}, W_{2}*, and

In the Standard Model, the ^{}_{}W^{±}_{} and ^{}_{}Z^{0}_{} bosons, and the photon, are produced by the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the **electroweak symmetry** from *SU*(2) × *U*(1)_{Y} to *U*(1)_{em}, caused by the Higgs mechanism (see also Higgs boson).^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]} *U*(1)_{Y} and *U*(1)_{em} are different copies of *U*(1); the generator of *U*(1)_{em} is given by *Q* = *Y*/2 + *T*_{3}, where *Y* is the generator of *U*(1)_{Y} (called the weak hypercharge), and *T*_{3} is one of the *SU*(2) generators (a component of weak isospin).

The spontaneous symmetry breaking makes the W_{3} and B bosons coalesce into two different bosons – the ^{}_{}Z^{0}_{} boson, and the photon (γ),

where *θ _{W}* is the

The *W _{1}* and

The distinction between electromagnetism and the weak force arises because there is a (nontrivial) linear combination of *Y* and *T*_{3} that vanishes for the Higgs boson (it is an eigenstate of both *Y* and *T*_{3}, so the coefficients may be taken as −*T*_{3} and *Y*): *U*(1)_{em} is defined to be the group generated by this linear combination, and is unbroken because it does not interact with the Higgs.

This page was last edited on 10 July 2018, at 22:31 (UTC).

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroweak_interaction under CC BY-SA license.

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroweak_interaction under CC BY-SA license.

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