An electrical network
is an interconnection of electrical components
) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements
(e.g. voltage sources
, current sources
). An electrical circuit
is a network consisting of a closed loop, giving a return path for the current. Linear
electrical networks, a special type consisting only of sources (voltage or current), linear lumped elements (resistors, capacitors, inductors), and linear distributed elements (transmission lines), have the property that signals are linearly superimposable
. They are thus more easily analyzed, using powerful frequency domain
methods such as Laplace transforms
, to determine DC response
, AC response
, and transient response
A resistive circuit is a circuit containing only resistors and ideal current and voltage sources. Analysis of resistive circuits is less complicated than analysis of circuits containing capacitors and inductors. If the sources are constant (DC) sources, the result is a DC circuit. For a random resistor network, the effective resistance and current distribution properties of the network can also be modeled in terms of graph measures and geometrical properties of network. 
A network that contains active electronic components is known as an electronic circuit. Such networks are generally nonlinear and require more complex design and analysis tools.
An active network is a network that contains an active source – either a voltage source or current source.
A passive network is a network that does not contain an active source.
An active network contains one or more sources of electromotive force. It consists of active elements like a battery or a transistor. Active elements can inject power to the circuit, provide power gain, and control the current flow within the circuit.
Passive networks do not contain any sources of emf. They consist of passive elements like resistors and capacitors. These elements are not capable of the same functions as active elements.
A network is linear if its signals obey the principle of superposition; otherwise it is non-linear.
This page was last edited on 7 June 2018, at 06:30 (UTC)
under CC BY-SA license.