Egyptian calendar

The ancient Egyptian calendar was a solar calendar with a 365-day year. The year consisted of three seasons of 120 days each, plus an intercalary month of 5 epagomenal days treated as outside of the year proper. Each season was divided into four months of 30 days. These twelve months were initially numbered within each season but came to also be known by the names of their principal festivals. Each month was divided into three 10-day periods known as decans or decades. It has been suggested that during the Nineteenth Dynasty and the Twentieth Dynasty the last two days of each decan were usually treated as a kind of weekend for the royal craftsmen, with royal artisans free from work.

Because this calendrical year was nearly a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year, the Egyptian calendar lost about one day every four years relative to the Gregorian calendar. It is therefore sometimes referred to as the wandering year (Latin: annus vagus), as its months rotated about one day through the solar year every 4 years. Ptolemy III's Canopus Decree attempted to correct this through the introduction of a sixth epagomenal day every four years but the proposal was resisted by the Egyptian priests and people and abandoned until the establishment of the Alexandrian or Coptic calendar by Augustus. The introduction of a leap day to the Egyptian calendar made it equivalent to the reformed Julian calendar, although by extension it continues to diverge from the Gregorian calendar at the turn of most centuries.

This civil calendar ran concurrently with an Egyptian lunar calendar which was used for some religious rituals and festivals. Some Egyptologists have described it as lunisolar, with an intercalary month supposedly added every two or three years to maintain its consistency with the solar year, but no evidence of such intercalation before the 4th century BC has yet been discovered.

H.E. Winlock[1]

Current knowledge of the earliest development of the Egyptian calendar remains speculative. A tablet from the reign of the First-Dynasty pharaoh Djer (c. 3000 BC) was once thought to indicate that the Egyptians had already established a link between the heliacal rising of Sirius (Ancient Egyptian: Spdt or Sopdet, "Triangle"; Greek: Σῶθις, Sō̂this) and the beginning of their year, but more recent analysis has questioned whether the tablet's picture refers to Sirius at all.[2] Similarly, based on the Palermo Stone, Scharff proposed that the Old Kingdom observed a 320-day year but his theory has not become widely accepted.[3] Some evidence suggests the early civil calendar had 360 days,[4] although it might merely reflect the unusual status of the five epagomenal days as days "added on" to the proper year.

With its interior effectively rainless for thousands of years,[5] ancient Egypt was "a gift of the river" Nile,[6] whose annual flooding organized the year into three broad seasons known to the Egyptians as:[7][8][9]

The first lasted from roughly June to September, the second from roughly October to January, and the last from roughly February to May.[7] As early as the reign of Djer (c. 3000 BC, Dynasty I), yearly records were being kept of the flood's high-water mark.[10] Neugebauer noted that a 365-day year can be established by averaging a few decades of accurate observations of the Nile flood without any need for astronomical observations,[11] although the great irregularity of the flood from year to year[a] and the difficulty of maintaining a sufficiently accurate Nilometer and record in prehistoric Egypt has caused other scholars to doubt that it formed the basis for the Egyptian calendar.[1][4][13]

The Egyptians appear to have used a purely lunar calendar prior to the establishment of the solar civil calendar[14][15] in which each month began on the morning when the waning crescent moon could no longer be seen.[13] Until the closing of Egypt's pagan temples under the Byzantines, the lunar calendar continued to be used as the liturgical year of various cults.[15] The month may have been divided into four "weeks" of 7 or 8 days, reflecting each quarter of the lunar phases.[16] Because the exact time of morning considered to begin the Egyptian day remains uncertain[17] and there is no evidence that any method other than observation was used to determine the beginnings of the lunar months prior to the 4th century BC,[18] there is no sure way to reconstruct exact dates in the lunar calendar from its known dates.[17] The difference between beginning the day at the first light of dawn or at sunrise accounts for an 11–14 year shift in dated observations of the lunar cycle.[19] It remains unknown how the Egyptians dealt with obscurement by clouds when they occurred and the best current algorithms have been shown to differ from actual observation of the waning crescent moon in about one-in-five cases.[17]

This page was last edited on 26 June 2018, at 11:13 (UTC).
Reference: under CC BY-SA license.

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