Born in Alford, in eastern England, Hutchinson sailed to New England at the age of 20, a year ahead of the remainder of his family. Following the events of the Antinomian Controversy, he, his father, and his uncle Edward were among 23 signers of a compact for a new government which they soon established at Portsmouth on Rhode Island. Young Hutchinson only remained there a short while, and had returned to Boston to occupy the family house. Here he had 11 children with two wives.
He became a charter member of the Military Company of Massachusetts (today known as the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts in 1638 and became its lieutenant (second in command) in 1654. He was elected the Company's captain (commanding officer) in 1657 and served a one-year term.
He also served as a Deputy to the General Court in 1658, and in this capacity voiced his opposition to the persecution of the Quakers that took place in the late 1650s.
During King Phillips War, in 1675, Captain Hutchinson and Captain Thomas Wheeler were given an assignment to negotiate with the Nipmuck Indians to keep them out of the war. While searching for the tribal chief, Muttawmp, the two captains, with a company of men, were ambushed, and both were wounded. Two weeks later Hutchinson died from his wounds, and was interred in a cemetery in Marlborough, Massachusetts.