Dialectic

Portrait of Hegel by an unidentified artist
Dialectic or dialectics (Greek: διαλεκτική, dialektikḗ; related to dialogue), also known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments. Dialectic resembles debate, but shorn of subjective elements such as emotional appeal and the modern pejorative sense of rhetoric. It may be contrasted with the didactic method where one side of the conversation teaches the other.

Within Hegelianism, dialectic acquires a specialised meaning of a contradiction of ideas that serves as the determining factor in their interaction; comprising three stages of development: a thesis, giving rise to its reaction; an antithesis, which contradicts or negates the thesis; and the tension between the two being resolved by means of a synthesis.

Dialectical materialism, built mainly by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, adapted the Hegelian dialectic into traditional materialism.

Dialectic tends to imply a process of evolution, and so does not naturally fit within formal logic; see logic and dialectic. This is particularly marked in Hegelian and even more Marxist dialectic which may rely on the time-evolution of ideas in the real world; Dialectical logic attempts to address this.

In classical philosophy, dialectic (διαλεκτική) is a form of reasoning based upon dialogue of arguments and counter-arguments, advocating propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses). The outcome of such a dialectic might be the refutation of a relevant proposition, or of a synthesis, or a combination of the opposing assertions, or a qualitative improvement of the dialogue.

Moreover, the term "dialectic" owes much of its prestige to its role in the philosophies of Socrates and Plato, in the Greek Classical period (5th to 4th centuries BCE). Aristotle said that it was the pre-Socratic philosopher Zeno of Elea who invented dialectic, of which the dialogues of Plato are the examples of the Socratic dialectical method.

This page was last edited on 18 May 2018, at 01:46.
Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dialectic under CC BY-SA license.

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