Concepción is the capital of Ñuflo de Chávez Province in the Santa Cruz Department and is located at an elevation of 500 m above sea level, circa 250 kilometers northeast of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, the department's capital.
Concepción was founded in 1699 by Jesuits and served as a mission place for the Christianization of the Guaraní people. In 1722 the village moved to its present place, and in 1745 it was inhabited by circa 2,000 people of the Punasicas, Boococas, Tubasicas, Paicones, Puyzocas, Quimonecas, Quitemos, Napecas, Paunacas and Tapacuracas tribes.
Between 1753 and 1756 the cathedral of Concepción was built (see photo), which still is the center of the blooming town. In 1766, Concepción was inhabited by 713 families and 3,276 persons. When in 1767 Charles III expelled the Jesuits and the village was administered by secular authorities, many of its inhabitants fled to the woods.
During the decade that followed the population decreased drastically, caused by epidemics, famine, the mismanagement of the new clergy and - at the end of the 19th century - by deporting the indigenous population to the rubber plantations.