Chahar Gulshan

Chahar Gulshan ("Four Gardens") is an 18th-century Persian language book about the history of India. It was written by Rai Chatar Man Kayath of Mughal empire in 1759 CE. It is also known as Akhbar-un Nawadir or Akhbaru-l-Nawadir ("Accounts of Rare Things").[1]

The book was written by Rai Chatar Man Kayath, also known as Rai Chaturman Saksena Kayasth. The author was a Kayastha of the Saksinah (Saxena) clan. The preface states that the book was completed in 1173 A.H. (1759 CE), and was commissioned by Wazir Gazi-ud-din Khan.[2]

Chahar Gulshan was completed only a week before the author's date. His grandson Rai Chandrabhan Raizadah re-arranged the content and added a second preface to the book in 1789.[1] Raizada's copy is the earliest surviving manuscript (Bodleian 264), likely copied from the original.[3]

The title of the book ("four gardens") refers to its four sections.[3]

The book contains important statistical data, including total cultivated area, number of villages and mahal-wise revenue.[3] However, these statistics are from a period earlier than the book's completition date, likely 1720 CE. By the time the book had been completed (1759 CE), the Mughal emperor was a figurehead. Ahmad Shah Durrani had captured Punjab. The Marathas had gained control of western Deccan and had crossed Narmada. Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah I, the Mughal viceroy of Deccan, had set up a practically independent state. The book itself states that statistics of Bijapur and Hyderabad are incomplete, as Asaf Jah I had carried away all the records.[1]

The first gulshan contains information on the following provinces:[1]

The second gulshan contains information on the 6 provinces of Deccan:[1]

This section also contains additional sub-sections on:[1]

This page was last edited on 14 May 2018, at 14:24 (UTC).
Reference: under CC BY-SA license.

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