As a part of the United States’ Cold War strategy, an anti-Communism advocacy group, the National Captive Nations Committee, was established in 1959 according to Pub.L. 86–90 by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. The American economist and diplomat of Ukrainian heritage Lev Dobriansky played a key role in it.
The law also established Captive Nations Week, traditionally proclaimed for the third week in July since then. The move aimed at raising public awareness of the problems of nations under the control of Communist and other non-democratic governments.
Russian emigres living in US, criticized P.L. 86-90, because speaking of "Russian communism" and "imperialistic policies of Communist Russia" this law by implication equated the terms "Russian", "Communist" and "Imperialist". Specifically, the Congress of Russian Americans argued that P.L. 86-90 was anti-Russian rather than anti-Communist since the list of "captive nations" did not include Russians, thus implying that the blame for the Communist crimes lies on the Russians as a nation, rather than just on Soviet system (the suggested reason for this is that the law was designed by Ukrainian nationalist Lev Dobriansky). Members of the Congress have campaigned for nullification of the Captive Nations law.
Group of prominent American historians issued a statement claiming that PL 86-90 was largely based on misinformation and committed the United States to aiding ephemeral "nations" such as Cossackia and Idel-Ural.