It consisted of the southern portion of the modern-day Canadian province of Quebec. Formerly a British colony called the Province of Lower Canada, based on Lord Durham's report it was merged with the Province of Upper Canada (present-day southern portion of the Province of Ontario) to create the United Province of Canada.
It was primarily a French-speaking region.
Due to heavy immigration following the American Revolutionary War, the population of English-speaking residents of Canada West soon outstripped Canada East. Under the Act of Union 1840 the seats in the lower legislature were evenly divided between East and West. There was no provision under the Act for representation by population.
The most important farm products were potatoes, rye, buckwheat, maple sugar, and livestock. When it came time to confederate, the Francophones were nervous because they did not want to lose their French heritage. They were afraid that it would be overwhelmed by the English.