The BR is biosynthesised from campesterol. The biosynthetic pathway was elucidated by Japanese researchers and later shown to be correct through the analysis of BR biosynthesis mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana, tomatoes, and peas. The sites for BR synthesis in plants have not been experimentally demonstrated. One well-supported hypothesis is that all tissues produce BRs, since BR biosynthetic and signal transduction genes are expressed in a wide range of plant organs, and short distance activity of the hormones also supports this. Experiments have shown that long distance transport is possible and that flow is in an acropetal direction, but it is not known if this movement is biologically relevant. Brassinosteroids are recognized at the cell membrane, although they are membrane-soluble.
BRs have been shown to be involved in numerous plant processes:
Extract from the plant Lychnis viscaria contains a relatively high amount of Brassinosteroids. Lychnis viscaria increases the disease resistance of surrounding plants.
24-Epibrassinolide (EBL), a brassinosteroid isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), was further evaluated for the antigenotoxicity against maleic hydrazide (MH)-induced genotoxicity in Allium cepa chromosomal aberration assay. It was shown that the percentage of chromosomal aberrations induced by maleic hydrazide (0.01%) declined significantly with 24-epibrassinolide treatment.
BRs have been reported to counteract both abiotic and biotic stress in plants. Application of brassinosteroids to cucumbers was demonstrated to increase the metabolism and removal of pesticides, which could be beneficial for reducing the human ingestion of residual pesticides from non-organically grown vegetables. In all Type of brassinosteroids 28-homoBL is the most effective type of brassinosteroids. (sandeep kumar et al. 2010 Jour. of Indian bot society) Brassinosteroids increased tolerance to high temperature in Brassica juncea L. (Kumar S. 2010) The ability of 28-homobrassinolide to confer resistance to stress in Brassica juncea L. has also established (sandeep kumar). Application of 24-epiBL have any protective role on shoot, root length, soluble protein, proline content and peroxidases along with proline content PPO and IAA in seedlings of B. juncea L. under seasonal stress (Geetika Sirhindi)