Born in Bulloch County, Georgia, Edenfield received a Bachelor of Business Administration from the University of Georgia in 1956 and an Bachelor of Laws from the University of Georgia School of Law in 1958. He was in the United States Army, Georgia National Guard from 1957 to 1963. He was in private practice in Statesboro, Georgia, from 1958 to 1978.
Edenfield was elected to the Georgia State Senate, from Bulloch, County, representing the 4th District in 1964. He took office in January 1965, serving with South Georgia State Senator, Jimmy Carter. Edenfield served one term, until January 1967.
On September 27, 1978, Edenfield was nominated by President Jimmy Carter to a seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Georgia vacated by Judge Alexander Atkinson Lawrence Jr. Edenfield was confirmed by the United States Senate on October 10, 1978, and received his commission on October 11, 1978. He served as Chief Judge from 1990 to 1997, and assumed senior status on August 2, 2006, serving in that status until his death.