The Australian ten dollar banknote was issued when the currency was changed from the Australian pound to the Australian dollar on 14 February 1966; it replaced the £5 note which had similar blue colouration. There have been four different issues of this denomination, a paper banknote, a commemorative hipolymer note to celebrate the bicentennial of Australian settlement (the first polymer banknote of its kind), the 1993-2017 polymer note, and from September 2017 a polymer note featuring a transparent window.
According to Reserve Bank of Australia statistics, as at June 2017 there were 128 million $10 notes in circulation, with a net value of $1.284 billion. This was 2% of the cash value of all banknotes in circulation, and 8% of the number of all banknotes in circulation.
Since the start of issue of $10 notes, there have been eleven signature combinations, of which the 1967 issue is the most valued. It was issued for one year only, along with the Coombs/Wilson issue of 1966.
Following the issue of a new $5 note in September 2016, the RBA revealed the design for the $10 note and was issued on the 20th of September, 2017.
From 1966–1974 the main title identifying the country was Commonwealth of Australia; there were 470,000,000 notes issued in this period. This was subsequently changed to Australia until the end of issue of paper currency for this denomination in 1993, with 1,265,959,091 of these notes being printed. In the 1988 polymer issue 17,500,000 banknotes were printed and was the new Australia's 10 dollar note.
The people depicted on the paper note issue were Francis Greenway on the obverse along with public building he helped construct, and Henry Lawson on the reverse with his poetry and scenes of the outback gold mining town of Gulgong in the 19th century including the Times Bakery.
The polymer note, designed by Max Robinson, features Andrew Barton (Banjo) Paterson on the obverse with a horse from the Snowy Mountains region, and a wattle plant, also included is his signature. His poetry is in the background. Dame Mary Gilmore is on the reverse with 19th-century heavy transport with horse and cart and verses from her poetry. Her signature is included. A windmill is in the clear window with the raised wavy lines. The $10 note of 2017 retains the themes of the original, with this issue featuring the Bramble Wattle (Acacia victoriae) and the Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita).