Attica (Greek: Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or Attikī́; Ancient Greek: or Modern: ), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece. It is a peninsula projecting into the Aegean Sea, bordering on Boeotia to the north and Megaris to the west.
The history of Attica is tightly linked with that of Athens, and specifically the Golden Age of Athens during the classical period. Ancient Attica was divided into demoi or municipalities from the reform of Cleisthenes in 508/7 BC, grouped into three zones: urban (astu) in the region of Athens and Piraeus, coastal (paralia) along the coastline and inland (mesogeia) in the interior. The southern tip of the peninsula, known as Laurion, was an important mining region.
The modern administrative region of Attica is more extensive than the historical region and includes Megaris as part of the regional unit West Attica, and the Saronic Islands and Cythera, as well as the municipality of Troizinia on the Peloponnesian mainland, as the regional unit Islands.
To the west of Eleusis, the Greek mainland narrows into Megaris, connecting to the Peloponnes at the Isthmus of Corinth. The western coast of Attica, also known as the Attic Riviera, forms the eastern coastline of the Saronic Gulf. Mountains separate the peninsula into the plains of Pedias, Mesogeia, and the Thriasian Plain. The mountains of Attica are the Hymettus, the eastern portion of the Geraneia, Parnitha (the highest mountain of Attica), Aigaleo and Penteli. Four mountains—Aigaleo, Parnitha, Penteli and Hymettus (clockwise from the southwest)—delineate the hilly plain on which the Athens-Piraeus urban area now spreads. Mesogeia lies to the east of Mount Hymettus and is bound to the north by the foothills of Mount Penteli, to the east by the Euboean Gulf and Mount Myrrhinous, and to the south by the mountains of Lavrio (modern Lavreotiki), Panio (Πάνειο Όρος), and Laureotic Olympus (Λαυρεωτικός Όλυμπος). The Lavrio region terminates in Cape Sounion, forming the southeastern tip of the Attic peninsula.