These areas have also been referred to as:
At the outset of the Karabakh conflict, the majority-Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast / Republic of Artsakh was surrounded by regions with Azerbaijani and Kurdish majorities and had no land border with Armenia. During the Nagorno-Karabakh war Azerbaijan had subjected Artsakh to a total blockade, which resulted in famine. As reported by the Human Rights Watch, "By the winter of 1991-92, as a result of Azerbaijan's three-year economic and transport blockade, Artsakh was without fuel…, electricity, running water, functioning sanitation facilities, communication facilities and most consumer goods." In 1992 the United States Congress added Section 907 to the Freedom Support Act of 1992, which banned direct US government support to the government of Azerbaijan. The bill namely stated:
United States assistance under this or any other Act may not be provided to the Government of Azerbaijan until the President determines that the Government of Azerbaijan is taking demonstrable steps to cease all blockades and other offensive uses of force against Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh.