Anholt (Danish pronunciation: ) is a Danish island in the Kattegat, midway between Jutland and Sweden at the entrance to the North Sea in Northern Europe. There are 145 permanent residents as of 1 January 2016. Anholt is seven miles (11 km) long and about four miles (6.4 km) wide at its widest, and covers an area of 21.75 km2 (8.40 sq mi). Anholt is part of Norddjurs Municipality in Region Midtjylland. Before the 2007 municipal reform, it was in Grenå Municipality.
The western fifth of Anholt consists of hilly moraine country, while the eastern four-fifths of the island consist of mostly flat raised seabed with some low hills, former wind-blown sand dunes. Only the western moraine hills are inhabited. The eastern part, called "Ørkenen" - the Desert - is treeless; the government has protected the area and permits no building there. The desert has never been ploughed. For this reason the original stone age topography from when the glaciation ceased, at the end of the last ice age 10,000 years ago, is still visible in many places. This includes former shorelines inland, consequences of different sea levels over time. The unploughed features of The Desert are unique for Denmark, as well as for this part of Europe.
The inhabited part of Anholt has two villages, The Harbour and Anholt Town, inland. There are also 300 to 400 summer houses, some of them rentals.
The western part of Anholt is a moraine landscape. The small village is situated in the middle of the landscape, whereas the harbour (built 1902) is at the northwestern tip of the island. The eastern part of the island is known as Ørkenen ("desert"). This desert-like area is the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. The desertification was caused by deforestation. Strictly speaking, the "desert" is not a true desert, but a lichen heath, with some 300 to 400 types of lichen.
Great efforts are being taken to preserve the unique scenery and prevent the devastating effects of erosion. In 1995/6 the Danish Heath Society cleared large areas in the south part of Ørkenen of mountain pine.